Geographer is a two-dimensional carbon nano material with outstanding physical properties, such as, electrical properties and excellent thermal conductivity due to its large surface area.93, 94 Recently, graphene flame retardants have shown promising impact on thermal stability of different polymers, mostly because of their insulator barrier effect.95-98 Graphene is mostly prepared by removal of oxygen groups from the surface of graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO).99 The challenge involving the application of graphene nanosheets in the polymer matrix is to achieve a good dispersion. Graphene layers have a high tendency to restack because of their strong Van der Waals forces and π-π interactions.95, 100 Therefore, it is most common to incorporate metal oxides as a modifier of graphene compatibility with the polymer matrix.96 To take a case in point, Wang et al prepared a rGO/cerium hybrid to reduce the fire hazards of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The introduction of 2 wt% rGO/cerium hybrid into TPU led to 33% increase in char residue and a 44% reduction in pHRR. It is worth mentioning that the incorporation of sole rGO in TPU also caused a 27% reduction in pHRR when compared with pure TPU.95 Yuan et al has also reported that the incorporation of dual modified graphene (by phosphazene flame retardant and Ni(OH)2 nanosheets) in polypropylene led to an improvement in the fire performance of the polymer. Compared with neat PP, a 32.6% reduction in pHRR values were observed in the presence of 2 wt% functionalized graphene.96 28.6% reduction in the total smoke release and 19% reduction in total heat release of composite samples were among other promising results.
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